The Oriente includes much of the northern departments of Beni and Pando, where the low plains are covered by savanna and, in the far north, by expanses of tropical rainforest. Its economic development has been limited, however, by high production costs and lack of investment; persisting obstacles include an inadequate transportation infrastructure and the country’s landlocked location. Bolivia’s mountainous western region, which is one of the highest inhabited areas in the world, constitutes an important economic and political centre. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Sort fact from fiction in this journey through Latin America. At the beginning of the 20th century the population of Bolivia was estimated at 1,800,000. Other religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to receive considerable foreign technical assistance and long-term loans from international organizations, including the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as from numerous creditor nations. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Brunswick Community College provides opportunities for individuals to be successful through accessible, high quality, student-centered programs and services that meet the educational, cultural and workforce needs of a diverse community. An impressive line of snowcapped peaks, some exceeding 20,000 feet (6,100 metres), characterize this northern section, which maintains an average elevation of more than 18,000 feet (5,500 metres) for more than 200 miles (320 km). Although only one-third of its territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. Víctor Paz Estenssoro enacted some of the continent’s toughest austerity measures and dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 percent to less than 10 percent. Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Bolivia, Bolivia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Bolivia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Initially, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral output dropped disastrously, and wages increased. Aspects The constitutional capital is the historic city of Sucre, where the Supreme Court is established, but the administrative capital is La Paz, where the executive and legislative branches of government function. Many of the mines were taken over by cooperatives owned by former employees. Tin long dominated metal production, but by the late 20th century both foreign and domestic companies were investing more heavily in gold and silver extraction. Through the centuries, the Roman Catholic Church has accepted some indigenous rituals and customs by assimilation, mainly through combined Catholic and traditional celebrations that continue to be an important part of life in rural and urban settings. The Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief is an independent expert appointed by the UN Human Rights Council. By 2006 Pres. In the early 21st century Mount Potosí (Cerro Rico), which has been intensively mined since the mid-16th century, sparked renewed interest because of its still-sizable reserves of silver. Between these ranges lies the Altiplano (“High Plateau”), which extends from southern Peru through Bolivia to northern Argentina. Most workers at the cooperatives, however, continued to labour under extremely difficult conditions and often lacked social benefits. Northward from the Chaco the relief of the Santa Cruz department is somewhat more varied, exhibiting a gentle downward slope to the north. The population increased dramatically by at least 2,250,000 (to some 5,300,000) during the next 25 years as the death rate fell and the birth rate remained consistently high. To the north of the Cordillera Real is the Apolobamba range, bordered on the western slopes by lakes and protected areas where vicuñas, alpacas, and llamas thrive. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Take advantage of our Presidents' Day bonus! Although only one-third of Bolivia’s territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. Bolivia shares Lake Titicaca, the second largest lake in South America (after Lake Maracaibo), with Peru. As a consequence denial of the events and facts would be difficult. Between 1925 and 1950 the population grew at a slightly accelerated rate (despite the losses of the Chaco War), increasing by about 750,000. They lie at elevations mostly between 6,000 and 9,500 feet (1,800 and 2,900 metres) and are noted for their rich, varied agriculture and the so-called garden cities of Cochabamba, Sucre, and Tarija. In the late 20th century membership grew in various Protestant denominations (notably Evangelical churches), and there were also increasing numbers of Bahāʾīs and Mormons. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bolivia also has reserves of antimony, tungsten (wolfram), lead, copper, and lithium. The country continues, however, to be exceptionally vulnerable to changes in world tin demand. Uyuni, Bolivia. The system in Bolivia is dominated by two great parallel ranges. ... National Quarantine Measures in Bolivia through September 30. Also worshiped is the sun god, legendary creator of the first Inca emperor Manco Capac and his sister-wife Mama Ocllo on the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca. Education. Author of. It was once the centre of the ancient Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) empire, and from the 15th to the early 16th century it was a part of the Inca empire. Average per capita income is low, and Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in South America. The ARDA provides free access to the most authoritative religion statistics, data and church membership reports from around the world, including Christian statistics and adherents data. In the middle of the Altiplano are the Titicaca and Poopó lakes and basins, which traditionally have been important agricultural, economic, and cultural areas. Bolivia: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%: ... many or most of these are non-practicing Christians. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A primate cardinalship, located in Sucre, heads the church hierarchy in Bolivia. The plateau is a relatively flat-floored depression about 500 miles (800 km) long and 80 miles (130 km) wide, lying at elevations between 12,000 and 12,500 feet (3,650 and 3,800 metres). Lake Titicaca, one famous natural feature of Bolivia, is the highest lake in the world that is deep enough for sailing a boat. Previously only Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua were official languages of the country. The proportion of Roman Catholics has decreased slowly but still accounts for more than three-fourths of the population. The government, attempting to satisfy the new labour unions, did not reduce the surplus number of miners, nor did it promote greater efficiency in many other sectors of the economy. In Bolivia the name Yungas often refers to a smaller region northeast of La Paz, which, like the neighbouring region of Alto Beni (the upper basin of the Beni River north of Caranavi), is part of the larger Yungas region. The country has been landlocked since it lost its Pacific coast territory to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–84), but agreements with neighbouring countries have granted it indirect access to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. After 25 years of slow growth thereafter it had increased to about 2,300,000. Bolivia is well endowed with natural resources. During the last quarter of the 20th century the rate of population growth slowed somewhat but was still among the higher rates in Latin America. Bolivia has one of the highest degrees of income inequality in the world. Healthcare expenditured comprised only 4.9% of the GDP. Fortunately they have been well documented, photographed, and subjected to testing by reputable experts. Juan Evo Morales Ayma—who shared a leftist ideology with close allies Pres. Some Bolivians emigrate to Argentina or Chile, searching for work and higher wages. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. 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