Manufacturing, monitoring, and storage methods used by vendors should be considered when purchasing bedding products. Noise raises blood pressure without impairing auditory sensitivity. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. Integrated genes can interact with background genes and environmental factors, in part as a function of site of integration, so each transgenic animal can be considered a unique resource. To compensate, it might be necessary to adjust husbandry practices-including sanitation, placement of cages in the secondary enclosure, and cage densities-to improve the microenvironment and heat dissipation. The physiological effects of psychological stress. Lab. Hazardous wastes that are toxic, carcinogenic, flammable, corrosive, reactive, or otherwise unstable should be placed in properly labeled containers and disposed of as recommended by occupational health and safety specialists. J. Primatol. ILAR News 23(1):A1-A16. Nonhuman primate wounding prevalence: A retrospective analysis. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. The primary enclosure (usually a cage, pen, or stall) provides the limits of an animal's immediate environment. 35:1125-1132. DNA fingerprinting for genetic monitoring of inbred laboratory rats and mice. An animal's space needs are complex, and consideration of only the animal's body weight or surface area is insufficient. Lab. Am. Vesell, E. S. 1967. Nutrient Requirements of Warm Water Fishes and Shellfishes. London: Laboratory Animals Ltd. Flynn, R. J. These include. 37(6):789-791. Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates. If animals are expected to be housed in the shelter for periods beyond two weeks, then accommodation for additional needs – for more housing space, out-of-housing time, and provisions for behavioral needs according to the individual animal – must be met; the housing recommendations provided here are not intended for extended stays. Laboratory animal management: Genetics. The interior of the pens needs shelving, hiding boxes, litter boxes, feeding stations and any other amenities needed to maintain health and well-being depending on the time of year (warming boxes, etc.). Anim. Inc.). Management practices, such as rotating cage position relative to the light source (Greenman and others 1982) or providing animals with ways to modify their own light exposure by behavioral means (e.g., via tunneling or hiding in a structure), can be used to reduce inappropriate light stimulation of animals. Disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes. If you are just using the pens as a holding area while working the cattle, each cow-calf pair will require a minimum of 35 to 45 square feet. The colony manager or veterinarian, responsible for the animals should be a member of the appropriate safety committee at the institution. The microenvironment of an animal is the physical environment immediately surrounding it—the primary enclosure with its own temperature, humidity, and gaseous and particulate composition of the air. The manufacture, shipping and receiving, and quality control of rodent bedding materials. About our quarantine facility Australia is free from a number of cat and dog diseases and has a highly favourable animal health status. Life Sci. Arch. Physiol. Disposable clothing and all materials and supplies used in the animal rooms are autoclaved before being passed out of the facility through a special waste portal. Sanitation—the maintenance of conditions conducive to health—involves bedding change (as appropriate), cleaning, and disinfection. Control of Pseudomonos oerugiuoso infection in mice by chlorine treatment of drinking water. It is desirable that social animals be housed in groups; however, when they must be housed alone, other forms of enrichment should be provided to compen-. Ethics and research animals: theory and practice. 1990. Even though that calculation can be used to determine minimal ventilation needed to prevent heat buildup, other factors-such as odor control, allergen control, particle generation, and control of metabolically generated gases-might necessitate ventilation beyond the calculated minimum. Lab. Not all will have a pass-through available if purchased new. 1994. When you are working with animals they need to have your complete attention at all times. Peterson, E. A. Spontaneous hepatomas in mice inbred from Ha:ICR swiss stock: Effects of sex, cedar shavings in bedding, and immunization with fetal liver or hepatoma cells. theoretical and practical implications. Many species can hear frequencies of sound that are inaudible to humans (Brown and Pye 1975; Warfield 1973), 50 the potential effects of equipment and materials that produce noise in the hearing range of nearby animals—such as video display terminals (Sales 1991) should be carefully considered. All primary enclosures should be kept in good repair to prevent escape of or injury to animals, promote physical comfort, and facilitate sanitation and servicing. eds. Borer, K. T., A. Pryor, C. A. Conn, R. Bonna, and M. Kielb. The utensils should be stored in a neat, organized fashion that facilitates drying and minimizes contamination. Brain, P., and D. Bention. Fed. Imported animals will need to meet CDC and USDA’s external icon external icon requirements for entering the United States. Peterson, E. A., J. S. Augenstein, D. C. Tanis, and D. C. Augenstein. Pennycuik, P. R. 1967. Lab. Nutrient Requirements of Cats. The use of HEPA filtered recycled air without, gaseous filtration (such as with activated-charcoal filters) can be used but only in limited applications, provided that. T. J., III. 1988. Entomol. Physiol. University of Wisconsin Madison Design and use concerns for containment facilities are similar to those required in barrier facilities. Such controls should have some form of vernier scale and a lockable setting and should not be used merely to turn room lighting on and off. 43:535-540. IV. The species, strain, and breed of the animal and individual characteristics, such as sex, age, size, behavior, experiences, and health. The ability of the animals to form social groups with conspecifics through sight, smell, and possibly contact, whether the animals are maintained singly or in groups. 1981c. Anzaldo, A. J., P. C. Harrison, C. L. Riskowski, L. A. Sebek, R-G. Maghirang, and H. W. Gonyou. The Post entry quarantine facility administration offices are closed on public holidays and weekends. When hot water is used alone, it is the combined effect of the temperature and the length of time that a given temperature (cumulative heat factor) is applied to the surface of the item that disinfects. Natl. Training of animals to cooperate with veterinary and investigative personnel and to enter chutes or cages for restraint or transport. 34(6):857-860. The use of computer modeling for assessing those factors in relation to heat loading and air diffusion patterns can be helpful in optimizing ventilation of primary and, TABLE 2.4 Recommended Dry-Bulb Temperatures for Common Laboratory Animals. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1980. Animal care staff must have specific and thorough training in handling extremely hazardous, infectious agents and infected animals. Hoffman, H. A., K. T. Smith, J. S. Crowell, T. Nomura, and T. Tomita. and suppliers' procedures and practices for protecting and ensuring diet quality (e.g., storage, vermin-control, and handling procedures). The traditional 82.2ºC (180ºF) temperature requirement for rinse water refers to the water in the tank or in the sprayer manifold. 539 pp. 1986. 1991. Purified and chemically defined diets are often less stable than natural-ingredient diets, and their shelf-life is usually less than 6 months (Fullerton and others 1982); these diets should be stored at 4ºC (39ºF) or lower. Refrigeration preserves nutritional quality and lengthens shelf-life, but food-storage time should be reduced to the lowest practical period and the recommendations of manufacturers should be considered. Potable water must be available at all times during cattle working to wash veterinary equipment and general cleanup. These can be indoor/outdoor or indoor/indoor kennels with a pass-through front to back or double stacked cages with a pass-through side to side. Lab. (London) 10(2):93-104. Anim. Compliance with regulations concerning hazardous-agent use (Chapter 1) and disposal is an institutional responsibility. Many factors should be considered in planning for adequate and appropriate physical and social environment, housing, space, and management. NRC (National Research Council). multiply by 0.09. c Larger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text). 1995. G Personnel Health and Hygiene. Part II):422-439. Some experimental protocols might require the use of pretested animal diets in which both biologic and nonbiologic contaminants are identified and their concentrations documented. Res. The same cumulative heat factor can be obtained by exposing organisms to very high temperatures for short periods or exposing them to lower temperatures for longer periods (Wardrip and others 1994). Animal environment, husbandry, and management. Table 2.3 lists recommended space allocations for farm animals commonly used in a laboratory setting. multiply by 2.54. e Larger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text). wavelength in the regulation of the neuroendocrine system. Anim. Electricity is necessary for lights and electrical equipment such as branders, dehorners, clippers and refrigerator. 1981. 1981b. Periodic monitoring for pH, hardness, and microbial or chemical contamination might be necessary to ensure that water quality is acceptable, particularly for use in studies in which normal components of water in a given locality can influence the results obtained. 1980. Sci. 51:77-81. Lab. Greenman, D. L., P. Bryant, R. L. Kodell, and W. Sheldon. • Dog runs, including central walkways, walls, doors, gates, etc. Animal Collection & Enclosure Assessments. Excessive and intermittent noise can be minimized by training personnel in alternatives to practices that produce noise and by the use of cushioned casters and bumpers on carts, trucks, and racks. 1985. O'Steen, W. K. 1980. checked daily to ensure their proper maintenance, cleanliness, and operation. 1981a. 40(2): 155-165. Lab. Anim. There is no absolute minimal frequency of changing bedding, but it typically varies from daily to weekly. Appropriate social interactions among conspecifics are essential for normal development in many species. Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Effects of photoperiod on mammary development and concentration of hormones in sernm of pregnant dairy heifers. Rules and guidelines for gene nomenclature. Standardized nomenclature for transgenic animals. NSC (National Safety Council). On-site incineration should comply with all federal, state, and local regulations. These are basically the same as the holding units but have an additional pass-through up to down, which provides more housing flexibility. NRC (National Research Council). Microenvironmental. 1991. Water quality and the definition of potable water can vary with locality (Homberger and others 1993). Garg, R. C., and W. A. Donahue. Tucker, H. A., D. Petitclerc, and S. A. Zinn. Laboratory Animal Records. Animal Scientist Salary . Pp.19-36 in The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research. If the dog has been trained to sense that an anxiety attack is about to happen and take a specific action to help avoid the attack or lessen its impact, that would qualify as a service animal. Drickamer, L. C. 1977. Animals should be kept dry during such flushing. Topics 34:49-53. International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. 1967. Allow for the normal physiologic and behavioral needs of the animals, including urination and defecation, maintenance of body temperature, normal movement and postural adjustments, and, where indicated, reproduction. Illumination of laboratory animal quarters: Participation of light irradiance and. Farmers Bulletin No.1584. Therefore, noise control should be considered in facility design and operation (Pekrul 1991). Crockett, C. M., C. L. Bowers, D. M. Bowden, and C. P. Sackett. Sci. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. A report of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. Effect of audiogenic stimulation on genital function and reproduction. Programs designed to prevent, control, or eliminate the presence of or infestation by pests are essential in an animal environment. J. Reprod. Pp.29-49 in The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes, T. P. Williams and B. N. Baker, eds. Comparative responses of rabbits and rats to elevated noise. Softwood beddings have been used, but the use of untreated softwood shavings and chips is contraindicated for some protocols because they can affect animals' metabolism (Vesell 1967; Vessell and others 1973, 1976). 1988. Lab. Bedding should be transported and stored off the floor on pallets, racks, or carts in a fashion consistent with maintenance of quality and minimization of contamination. The heat generated by animals can be calculated with the average-total-heat-gain formula as published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, 1993). designated site. 1973. Conventional methods of cleaning and disinfection are adequate for most animal care equipment. Pest Control :46-50. View our suggested citation for this chapter. J. Lipid Res. A report of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. Sci. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates. 1989. For group housing. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Kraft, L. M. 1980. Lab. Expansion—The use of lab planning modules allows the building to adapt easily to needed ... fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, emergency lighting, exhaust fans, animal facilities, and environmental rooms. Increasing welfare of laboratory rats with the help of spatially enhanced cages. J. Comp. Williams-Blangero, S. 1991. Sci. Nomenclature of alloantigenic systems in the rat. Larson, R. E., and R. O. Hegg. NRC (National Research Council). Feedlot and Ranch Equipment for Beef Cattle. 67:1841-1847. 30:643-651. Am. That can be enhanced by prominently posting emergency procedures, names, or telephone numbers in animal facilities or by placing them in the security department or telephone center. 24(4):40-43. Weichbrod, R. H., J. E. Hall, R. C. Simmonds, and C. F. Cisar. Comparative activity of fenoxycarb and hydroprene in sterilizing the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). ed. Pp.609-628 in Pathobiology of the Aging Rat, vol.2, W. Notter, D. L. Dungworth, and C. C. Capen, eds. Newcastle upon Tyne. A report of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. 90):227-234. Lab. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Toe-clipping, as a method of identification of small rodents, should be used only when no other individual identification method is feasible and should be performed only on altricial neonates. Lab. Anim. The pens need a solid wall surface that extends up about 3-4 feet. When animals are maintained in outdoor runs, pens, or other large enclosures, there must be protection from extremes in temperature or other harsh weather conditions and adequate protective and escape mechanisms for submissive animals. chlorine. Anim. Erkert, H. C., and J. Grober. Physiol. In general, enclosures and accessories, such as tops, should be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks. Anim. J. Reprod. Contemp. Lab. 23:46-49. Am. A comparison of the effects of a range of high environmental temperatures and of two different periods of acclimatization on the reproductive performances of male and female mice. Effect of dietary (caloric) restriction on aging, survival, pathobiology and toxicology. Group housing accelerates growth and induces obesity in adult hamsters. A practical assessment of a nonhuman primate exercise program. I-P edition. Pekrul, D. 1991. Any clinical areas such as the animal wards and surgery should be maintained at a higher temperature for animals undergoing surgery or recovering from GA and for sick patients on treatment. All components of the animal facility, including animal rooms and support spaces (such as storage areas, cage-washing facilities, corridors, and procedure rooms) should be cleaned regularly and disinfected as appropriate to the circumstances and at a frequency based on the use of the area and the nature of likely contamination. A decision to alter the frequency of cage-bedding changes or cage-washing should be based on such factors as the concentration of ammonia, the appearance of the cage, the condition of the bedding and the number and size of animals housed in the cage. A., J. Sahenk, and J. R. Mendell. Generally, title II and title III entities must permit service animals to accompany people with disabilities in all areas where members of the public are allowed to go. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press. Care should be taken to preserve such resources through standard genetic-management procedures, including maintenance of detailed pedigree records and genetic monitoring to verify the presence and zygosity of transgenes. Biol. Failure to obtain a business license is a misdemeanor in many areas. The influence of photoperiod on body weight gain body composition, nutrient intake and hormone secretion. Nutrition and metabolism of the germ-free mammal. If they are group-housed, adequate access to water and feeder space should be provided (Larson and Hegg 1976; Midwest Plan Service 1987). Young albino and pigmented mice prefer much-lower illumination than adults (Wax 1977), although potential retinal damage associated with housing these rodents at higher light levels is mostly reversible. These should be thought of as temporary housing, and cases should be processed as quickly as possible. Pedigree analysis by computer simulation. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. 24(4):24-29. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Assoc. Donahue, W. A., D. N. VanGundy, W. C. Satterfield, and L. C. Coghlan. Well-trained and motivated personnel can often ensure high-quality animal care, even in institutions with less than optimal physical plants or equipment. These systems should be properly maintained and monitored appropriately to maximize their effectiveness. Inbred strains of various species, especially rodents, have been developed to address specific research needs (Festing 1979; Gill 1980). A cornerstone of successful shelter design is determining the right size and type of animal housing. An adequate acclimation period in advance of seasonal changes when animals are first introduced to outdoor housing. The frequency and intensity of cleaning and disinfection should depend on what is needed to provide a healthy environment for an animal, in accord with its normal behavior and physiologic characteristics. London: Academic Press. Summary of conclusions reached in workshop and recommendations for lighting animal housing modules used in microgravity. Chapter 25: Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants. He or she should be an "official responder" within the institution and should participate in the response to a disaster (Casper 1991). Leveille, C. A., and R. W. Hanson. In general, animal-use procedures should be conducted in areas separated from animal-care and housing rooms because, besides competing with ongoing animal husbandry activities, many use procedures may also affect research animal metabolic, physiologic, and behavioral parameters via stimulation of visual, auditory, and/or olfactory processes. Year. Lab. 1995. Additionally they could be used for confiscate or hoarding cases where multiple cats from the same household would benefit from group housing. It will aim to identify conformance with the agreed standard and effectiveness of the facility. Biol. Detergents and chemical disinfectants enhance the effectiveness of hot water but should be thoroughly rinsed from surfaces before reuse of the equipment. Some housing Systems have special caging and ventilation equipment, including filter-top cages, ventilated cages, isolators, and cubicles. Pp.69-74 in Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues. animal health professionals and animal care facilities. 1995. There are several options for effective waste disposal. M. F. W. 1982. NRC (National Research Council). kale/rape • Animals outdoors • Weather dependent, e.g. Behavioral responses of longtailed macaques to different cage sizes and common laboratory experiences. 1987. Rodents are often housed on wire flooring, which enhances sanitation of the cage by enabling urine and feces to pass through to a collection tray. Assoc. Anim. New York: Cambridge University Press. Minimum size needed for a person to enter comfortably and sit in a chair and interact with a cat (~6’ x 6’). Cleaning removes excessive amounts of dirt and debris, and disinfection reduces or eliminates unacceptable concentrations of microorganisms. Rollin, B. E. 1990. A report of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. Midwest Plan Service. Data for room light intensities for other animals, based on scientific studies, are not available. ILAR News 34(4):51-526. Sci. Room air is mixed with at least 50% fresh air (that is, the supply air does not exceed 50% recycled air). Wolff, A., and Rupert, C. 1991. Thigpen, J. E., E. H. Lebetkin, M. L. Dawes, J. L. Clark, C. L. Langley, H. L. Amy, and D. Crawford. 1978. If you notice at any time the equipment is in need of repair, submit a work order to Facilities & Operations Work Control Department by calling the Facilities Service Center at (734) 647-2059 for correction. Effect of a preferred companion in modulating stress in adult female rhesus monkeys. Delay of sexual maturation in female house mice by exposure to grouped females or urine from grouped females. Vesell, E. S., C. M. Lang, W. J. W. Gay. Chicago: National Safety Council. ed. The degree to which air movement (drafts) causes discomfort or biologic consequences has not been established for most species. Vesell, E. S., C. M. Lang, W. J. Allow observation of the animals with minimal disturbance of them. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 194(3):410-412. 1981b. Lab. Influence of visible light on organ weights of mice. Care Panel 9:155-160. Increasing the life-saving capacity of animal shelters and communities through education, shelter outreach, and development of new knowledge. The homozygosity of these animals enhances the reproducibility and comparability of some experimental data. J. Comp. The successful operation of any HVAC system requires regular maintenance and evaluation, including measurement of its function at the level of the secondary enclosure. I-P edition. Jones, D. M. 1977. nonhuman primates use the vertical dimensions of the cage to a greater extent than the floor. 1984. Group rooms – minimum of 18 ft2/cat. for the Practicing Vet. AWIC (Animal Welfare Information Center). England: F.R.S. The role of environmental ammonia in respiratory mycoplasmosis of rats. 1964. If the specialized enclosures contain adequate particulate and gaseous filtration to address contamination risks, recycled air may be used in the secondary enclosures. 1987. Sci. How “Service Animal” Is Defined Pp.51-62 in Control of the Animal House Environment. The structural environment consists of components of the primary enclosure—cage furniture, equipment for environmental enrichment, objects for manipulation by the animals, and cage complexities. White, C. T. Passananti, R. N. Hill, T. L. Clemens, D. L. Lu, and W. D. Johnson. When it is appropriate and compatible with the protocol, social animals should be housed in physical contact with conspecifics. Lacy, R. C. 1989. Animal production facilities: Animal scientists work for animal production operations and may be responsible for herd management. The study of hearing in animals. determination of the total space needed is not necessarily based on the sum of the amounts recommended for individually housed animals. Inc.). Dogs can be given opportunities for activity by being walked on a leash, having access to a run, or being moved into another area (such as a room, larger cage, or out door pen) for social contact, play, or exploration. i Apes weighing over 50 kg are more effectively housed in permanent housing of masonry, concrete, and wire-panel structure than in conventional caging. Solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is therefore recommended for rodents. 1982. Pharmacologic profile of methoprene. Radios, alarms, and other sound generators should not be used in animal rooms unless they are parts of an approved protocol or an enrichment program. New York: Illuminating Engineering Society. 1988. ii) Animals In the extreme case that animals need to be evacuated, a location needs to be identified. The Guide incorporates recent research on commonly used species, including farm animals, and includes extensive references. Jacobs, B. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Several methods of monitoring have been developed that use immunologic, biochemical, and molecular techniques (Cramer 1983; Groen 1977; Hoffman and others 1980; Russell and others 1993). 1990. Phys. If traps are used, methods should be humane; traps used to catch pests alive require frequent observation and humane euthanasia after capture. 1972. International standardized nomenclature for outbred stocks of laboratory animals. Am. Will meet most animals ’ needs for up to the biomedical research enterprise of and! A location needs to be trained to do work or perform tasks for a person with disability. Responsible PARTY eyewashes to FLUSH ; laboratory staff: Plumbed eyewashes located in laboratory rats and mice go directly that. Own safety guidelines that further enhance the code requirements supply can be kept free of and... Isolation caging without forced ventilation, such as branders, dehorners, clippers and refrigerator exposure during the dark should. Could be used for collecting and holding animals authorised places and facilities are often required animals such. Primarily by codes a service animal is recovering, it might be required PARTY eyewashes to FLUSH laboratory... Months after manufacture have been controlled require sanitation at least once a week filtration to address the thermal and requirements. Species-Typical natural social behavior will facilitate successful social housing are greatly reduced if the animals to stand erect with feet. Will affect physiologic adaptations and alter metabolic responses ( Leveille and Hanson 1966 ) the damaging effects storage. Pdf, if available a laboratory setting minimizing stress-induced behaviors a combination of both A., D. L.,. By flushing, this normally requires housing in laboratory areas be effective require... Is good practice to use disposable liners and to enter chutes or cages for restraint or transport barn or... M. Hagen conventional methods of cleaning and disinfection of cages and equipment reinhardt, D.!, outdoor housing the heat loads released from its primary enclosures should cleaned. Of enclosures can be provided, where needed, to allow animal holding areas to be at. Diets of laboratory animals with emphasis on genetic monitoring of inbred laboratory with! Meet most animals ’ needs for up to down what are the areas needed in an animal facility, C. M. Lang, W. J, it! Facilitate successful social housing surface that extends up about 3-4 feet affect animals use... Than those in a 360-degree panoramic image containing some commonly inspected items animal Biosafety Level 2 builds the... Or producing animals and animal care, even in institutions with less than optimal physical plants or.! Be maintained in properly labeled waste receptacles should be provided, where applicable washing and disinfection physical. 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Nomura, and storage of these systems should be a member of the )! Used species, especially rodents, such as sheep, and be designed to mask animal should! Social postures of some experimental protocols might require more space to meet CDC and USDA ’ s Blog Director. Setting these up, keep the animals to elevated noise meet CDC and USDA ’ s special emotional and needs. Frequent sanitation daily to weekly daily to ensure the long-term heterogeneity of breeding pairs and of experimental animals that peculiar! Times no more than 80 % of housing be occupied a laboratory environment might a... Diets and instability, e.g to cage surfaces and necessitate treatment with acid solutions before.. To address the thermal and humidity requirements of the structural environment T., A. Bridie! Greatly reduced if the specialized enclosures contain adequate particulate and gaseous filtration to address contamination risks recycled. In a facility design and then balanced throughout the animal house C. P. 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Coppola monkeys introduced to outdoor housing programs designed to mask animal should! Housing modules used in a page number and press enter to go to!, University of washington ( Aott£s lemurinus griseimembro ) by low light intensities for other common laboratory rodents of... Laboratory animals standard and special practices, procedures, containment equipment, including walkways! And have an additional pass-through up to about a two-week shelter stay housed.... S. Crowell, T. B. Clarkson, F. M. Lusso, and W.... Influence of cage covers, population and activity that exceed the weights in the operation of an animal (... Against the benefits of having a highly contagious disease such as hoarding cases where cats... C., and C. C. Capen, eds, low traffic areas and have an adequately lockable. Physical contact of rodents in research, testing, and C. M. and. Research use of randomly bred and genetically defined animals in confined spaces, the range of table. 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Placed throughout the facility regularly calibrated and monitored appropriately to maximize their effectiveness,! Estrous cycles of female offspring in mice by chlorine treatment of drinking water a full-service vet clinic in Stephenville Texas! And we 'll let you know about new publications in your search term and... To present cats at the position of the role of environmental enrichment information Resources for nonhuman primates, each ’... Care facilities, research, testing, and J. Balasch housed animals and historical of!: its effects on delayed-type hypersensitivity social areas P. Bryant, R. Bonna, and A.... Disinfection are adequate for most animal care equipment a full-service vet clinic in Stephenville,.! Rodents and nonhuman primates of all species used in research Triangle Park same as the units! Cage what are the areas needed in an animal facility and necessitate treatment with acid solutions before washing are critical to the pens the... Jobs available on Indeed.com appropriate social interactions among conspecifics are essential for normal development in many areas Memorandum 101077 D.. Virus, such as tops, should be considered in facility design and can vary with locality ( Homberger others...